Cyclone separators utilize gravity and a vortex to remove particulates from gaseous streams. Industrial cyclones are used in pollution control applications most commonly as a first stage, lower cost method for removing larger particulate matter (PM) from effluent gas streams. Because cyclone separators do not incorporate filter media or moving parts, the pressure drop (therefore, operating costs) and maintenance requirements tend to be low. They can also be constructed to withstand harsh operating conditions, and since separation in cyclones is a dry process, the equipment is less prone to moisture corrosion.
Cyclone separators operate by incorporating centrifugal, gravitational, and inertial forces to remove fine particles suspended in air or gas. These types of separators use cyclonic action to separate particulates from a gas stream. Typically, PM enters the cyclone separator at an angle (perpendicular to the flow stream, tangentially, or from the side), and is then spun rapidly. A centrifugal force is created by the circular airflow that throws the particulate towards the wall of the cyclone. Once the PM hits the wall, it falls into a hopper below. “Clean” exhaust is then either blown through or recirculated to be filtered again.
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